Thursday, July 31, 2008

BL漫之推廣帖(三)《漫畫》

進入BL第三波推廣文,有點給它皮起來,一次要大量推文果然不是我的作風,鑒於此,以後貼文速度會放慢些,每個禮拜介紹兩到三個就好,不然再這麼忙著工作忙著看書忙著生活又要忙著貼推文,遲早會冒出想死的念頭。另外,書封越來越難找,有讓我狠狠挫折到……囧rz


【紺野けい子/紺野惠子】
紺野惠子的作品相當有趣,她即能畫出成年人晦暗不明的生態愛情,也能表達青少年義無反顧的火熱青澀戀情,主角雙方內心戲交錯詮釋,情緒渲染烘托得宜,往往會令人感到談戀愛是件不可思議也非容易的事,身體明明交纏了,但心靈的共鳴卻僅在纏綿的一瞬間,未來的路還需要靠著彼此相互努力、相互探索來維持下去;而她作品中愛情的處理方式向來就較為透明清亮且健康,主角雙方拍子即使原不同調,一旦相戀了,卻能見到其包容心。在她的情感畫布上,讀者會見到,很淡泊的象牙白、素雅自然的草綠色、紮實沉穩的藏青色、更有可人的粉色系,偶爾還有黑影飄來忽去,總之,色彩感十分豐富,情緒表達上卻反而異常低調,也因如此,整體作品倒也展現出內斂與精準掌控的深度感。


《閃亮你的心》尖端



【龍川和ト/龍川和卜】
龍川的書乍看會覺得還不錯,H度很高、畫風不差、梗不難看,但回頭再仔細瞧個分明,會發現整本書通篇不合理之處多如過江之鯽,主角的反應時常會覺得莫名其妙;一開始以為翻譯出了問題,但幾乎每一本都會有幾個環節感覺很詭異,然後才確定是龍川作品的邏輯出了問題,呃,怎麼說呢,就是那種標準的先設定了架構、然後為創造高潮劇情、也不管「誤會/衝突」此款超辛辣的調味料是否會讓劇情連貫不上的典型手法。不過我覺得她的基本設定還是有一定的魅力在,就是誤會處理上要再多用點心,至少要強化主角倆人「為何而衝突」的合理度,否則看她的漫畫很容易消化不良。Orz


《星陵青春學生會》尖端


【直野儚羅】
如果是才剛接觸直野儚羅近期作品者,最初絕對會有「這漫畫家真不錯」的想法,很好很好,有這種心情真不錯,挺讓人羨慕的;但若和我一樣是在她初出道就一路看到至今,或許比較能理解這份從心底油然而生的無奈感──直野儚羅走下坡的歷程還真緩慢……。直野好看的漫畫差不多集中在早期,近期作品也不算差,只是整個定型之後,她會一再延用早期那一套模式來詮釋感情,造成雷同度太高以致於感到單調,也因為如此,我才會說她走下坡的歷程還真緩慢。最主要的,如果是一下子就走下坡的那種,要切倒也痛快,但目前這情況根本是切不斷啊Q_Q。直野畫風其實很不錯,不過她的配對年紀差距相當大,而主角人物往往有著花樣又奇特的含羞帶怯、閉月羞花之性格,另一方面H尺度卻又達到頂點,雖然她的最大問題在於創作陷入窠臼,但那種天壤之別的落差所帶來詭異至極的感受,或許才是令我逐漸無法忍受的部份也說不一定。


《心跳的夢想樂園》尚禾


【寿たらこ/壽TARAKO】
寿たらこ的作品一向很另類,最早是由《DOGLA+MAGLA》開始注意到她,劇情描述強國軍隊創造出無人能及的終極殺人武器,某天,這隻食人天使要求軍隊為他找伴來解悶,而看似窮極無聊的舉動、實則有他自身的考量。呃,我想,可能是先有這一單行本的初步構想,才有後來規模設定如此完整的《SEX PISTOLS》問市。
接著的《振り向くだけでアナタ罪な男》與《隣りのしばふ》是寿たらこ較為主流市場的有趣小品。前者描述一個隨時隨地都會精蟲上腦的種馬學生,對同校男同學一見傾心,也沒有詢問對方意願便缺德的上了對方,導致後來烏龍連連;後者為青梅竹馬有了女友才發現自己早已愛上對方,但眼見青梅竹馬連約會都想找他湊一腳,傷心、懊惱又羞愧的他只好開始藉機遁離小倆口,卻引得青梅竹馬十分不滿。
《プラトニックアニマル》則是描述三個兄弟之間的異常情感,是個邏輯性有突槌的早期作品,但事實上,這是寿たらこ很典型的路線作品,劇情中往往帶有些微的悲劇人生色彩,而主角也多半會有自戕的異常心理,還算樂天的我是後來才逐漸能夠理解這種活得不耐煩只好藉由傷害來感受自己仍舊活著的奇怪心理。
《純愛ウイルス》三個短篇都很突出,首先是主角愛上了四處風流又沒什麼大腦的笨蛋同學,一直將感情壓抑卻因勸阻對方要有道德心不成而終究爆發出來;接著的,因搶了好友的女友,被煸動殉情卻獨活下來的主角,為了贖罪、成了好友的女人;最後這一篇我記得沒錯的話,總共有上中下三篇,因散落在各個單本漫畫裡,順序若不對,有可能會看不明白這對雙胞胎兄弟到底在想什麼──兄長一心想殺了對方、老弟擺明了就是要招惹對方──,劇情相當灰暗,也是寿たらこ很典型的風格劇情。
另外的,寿たらこ再更早期的作品多半以戀童癖為主,我對這部份興趣缺缺,自然就記不住劇情,也沒什麼好再深入介紹的了。
好,回頭來談談《SEX PISTOLS》這套從另類打入BL主流市場的優異作品。書名有些令人莞薾(直譯為:性手槍),通曉Punk音樂的或許還記得音樂界曾有過這麼一個壽命十分短暫卻發光發熱的「SEX PISTOLS」龐克老樂團,他們以反叛精神為榮耀,詞曲粗糙卻充滿中下階層社會之生命力,最重要的是,這組活像流氓的四人英國樂團鼓動著失序與混亂的社會狀態,與《SEX PISTOLS》的核心內容幾乎是不謀而合。《SEX PISTOLS》將人類分為兩大區塊──進化的種族、斑類與未進化的種族、猴子,而斑類又分為六大類:貓又、蛇目、熊樫、犬神、蛟、人魚,另外再依序分為重種、中間種、輕種,所有的斑類不管同性異性,只要有愛就能為伴侶生下下一代,也因如此,主角關係非常複雜,一開始剛接觸本作品的讀者可能會感到混亂,不過看到後來,這些分類將越來越容易釐清,趣味度也在劇情發展下相對地提升中。故事由斑目這個大家族開始,然後漸漸向外擴大配對範圍,每條劇情線都是各自成立,看似相連卻又互不相干,對,這點個人很喜歡,我最受不了的是一整本書裡的主角全成了同志,最後還要來個闔家歡樂大祝福所有情侶終成眷屬的詭異劇情!可惜的是,尚禾翻譯有給它糟糕到天兵程度,讓我一直下不了決心收集本套作品啊……Q口Q


《野性類戀人》尚禾


【蔵王大志‧藏王大志/つだみきよ‧津田美代樹】
藏王大志最早推出的《超級感應》,是套很有趣的小品之作,當時對她極有好感,但隨著作品在台灣越推越多、人氣度也越來越高,但我卻是越看心越涼。有些作品,它會立刻引起視覺震撼,但要能在心底停留很久,需要更多能夠經過時間考驗的化學變化,而這股化學變化無以名之,裡頭有太多曖昧與不可解釋的玩味之處,因此,我在漫畫與小說裡、從現實中、由週圍四處,找了又找、看了又看,不厭倦卻也不太明瞭自己到底在探尋什麼,除非這股化學變化流於形式、走味了,然後漸漸感到厭倦,再來就是慢慢地離去。這道理適用在藏王大志漫畫之上。藏王大志的作品確實有其周延性,但作品結構屬性卻有種拼湊感,本本以搞笑為基底,大玩妄想、陰謀、教化、與旁人的從中作梗……,儘管熱熱鬧鬧,劇情層次感其實並不豐富,造成她的作品往往只有單一表現視角,空有外貌的演員若演來演去也只有那麼一○一套演技,看戲者久而久之就會開始覺得無聊了。而我也只能說,對現在的我而言,只有可愛、只有畫風已經無法滿足得了本人。Q_Q


《不可思議的愛戀》青文


【樹要】
於我,樹要是位比雞肋還要雞肋的漫畫家。說真的,個人一直覺得樹要的自創劇情其實還滿芭樂的,儘管畫風美形,主角卻像是具有強迫症的患者一樣,會不斷週而復始的拷貝某些令人不快的行為,不安→衝突升高→濃烈性行為→合好→相愛……如此等等,造成作品千篇一律,尤其長篇為最,看似虐卻虐得不痛不癢、毫無道理。但還是有讀者會買帳,嗯,也好,風格越多元化,代表BL類型市場會越加活絡化,否則除此之外,我也不知該說什麼才好。Q_Q


《愛你的距離》尚禾


【あきよし菜魚/秋吉菜魚】
這部單行本主角已事先在學弟作品《純粹暴走Honey》裡登場過,原以為調性會如同純書、一整個歡樂到底,沒想到如此苦悶,但比起可愛卻沒什麼內容可深談的純書,水書倒是好看多了,不過要看水書者,仍必須先由純書著手。水書主要是以佑的個人觀點去描述感情的發展過程,玲司成了陪襯角色,而其實這是出自於傳統少女漫的表現手法,漫畫家為女性的關係,她們會將情感與矜持投射於女主角身上,並將男主角思維真空化、並擔任起絕地大反攻的死心眼之角色,因為好一陣子沒看傳統少女漫,突然間在BL漫裡瞧見這手法,覺得挺有意思也頗懷念的,但有句話說得好,相見不如懷念啊XD!劇情描述佑與玲司這對青梅竹馬,不知從何時起,友情變質為愛情,家人在察覺情況不對下、硬是提出高標準要求(升上高中後兩人的變通方法在純書裡有提到),高中畢業後,再也承受不住的佑拋下一切、包括了戀人玲司,並隱匿行蹤……。儘管手法稍嫌生澀,不過菜魚有傳達到兩顆悸動的靈魂彼此吸引卻總是感到不安與悲傷的心境,相當不錯。^_^


《水影三日月》長鴻


【山岸ほくと】
第二部單行本比起同系列第一部《野獸情人》要來得順暢也好看多了,本部作品營造出略為壓抑與自制的愛情氛圍,那是一份讓人很懷念的老式質樸味道,但我想,繼續這樣下去對山岸絕對不是好事,如果沒有針對自身的弱點加以改進並強化優點,這類型的漫畫家其實太容易隱沒在茫茫人海中。劇情描述遠離家鄉、於人類城鎮活動的獸人麒鷅,在長久沒有主子的情況下勉強維持住人形,但無奈意志力早已消磨怠盡,眼見即將迷失自我並狂亂至死,高階軍官米卡艾魯此時突然現身,處境雖然逐漸好轉,麒鷅卻是無法不恐懼於這份壓倒性的支配力與絕對的服從……


《Wild Rose─野獸玫瑰─》長鴻


【島あさひ】
對我來說,島あさひ是一個超級糟糕型的BL漫畫家,她的糟糕已經到了遠遠便會嗅見犯罪味道的地步,也只有在偶爾悶到發慌,想狠狠攪爛自己腦袋時才會借她漫畫來看。先不提分鏡凌亂得超不及格的問題點,老實說,對她作品裡的愛情攻略過程,個人是相當地不敢恭維,人物設定不出意外、絕對一個Sadism(施虐者)配上一個Masochism(被施虐者),調教、強上、猥褻、凌辱,樣樣都來,最糟糕的是娘受總是一副甘之如飴的模樣,那已經不是戀人之間應有的甜美調情作為,根本上是雙方性癖好偏差情況十分嚴重的程度。不過島あさひ即然都擺明了「就是要畫這種漫畫來服務讀者啦」(情況也有可能是她畫不出正常性愛的感情漫),再加上每個人的喜好不儘相同,所以,也無需再多提─_─。以下這本是比較沒那麼糟糕的作品。


《加倍的愛情配方》大然


【大竹とも】
距離大竹最後一次發行作品已經是兩年前的事,雖然僅僅為木原音瀬的《恋について》協助進行插畫工作,但也挺令人心頭雀躍的了,不過,這麼一來,該不該說大竹根本是位並不勤奮的BL漫畫家呢(苦笑兼嘆氣)?但就因為她不是量產型的漫畫家,所以作品中才能保有著一份不具匠氣的清新特質。說實話,大竹漫畫其實很普通,她所設定的主角往往「平易近人」到如你我週遭的普通朋友般,是群絲毫不突出、不多金、不酷帥並謹守份際、不輕易逾越底線的青年們,只不過越是這樣的朋友,一旦顯露他自身的軟弱面,反而越是令人不知所措,而對方本身或多或少也會感到難堪;換個角度再試想看看,今天一個男人要對另一男人展露出情感的脆弱處,需要的勇氣份量是必需加倍再加倍,很多BL漫畫也有探討到此部份,只不過都沒有大竹傳達來得自然與生活化,大竹作品中最耐人尋味的地方就在這裡,也是因為這樣,我對大竹才會心心念念不忘啊(笑)。


《純色自然的戀人》大然


【安曇もか】
對安曇,我頗有好感,但至今仍搞不清楚安曇到底算不算是我的菜……。安曇的畫作十分具有華麗巴洛克之黃金印象,畫風細緻又典雅,非常適合詮釋古歐洲背景故事是到了即使內容稍嫌薄弱都無所謂的地步,不過一旦背景拉回到現代,她的畫風就弱不禁風地令人感到蒼白無力,而設定成古日本背景的就更慘了,劇情不僅軟趴趴,甚至展現不出當代市井小民剛毅強韌的草莾生命力。除此之外,一本漫畫時常跳tone是她最該注意的問題,畢竟以她老手的實力來說,不應該出現這種新人會有的問題。


《可愛又冷酷的你》尚禾


【春野まみ】
先不論春野其它作品好看與否,我個人還挺喜愛此部作品,儘管不是很偏好春野如深宮怨婦般的愁容畫風,不過清麗脫俗的氣質有補強到。劇情很老梗,廣季暗戀著同一職場中即將結婚的大學同學,膽怯的他無法向意中人表白,冷漠的他卻又貪圖著陌生人的體溫,總是明白的表現出對方僅是替身罷了,即使分手也無所謂,直到遇上纏人的阿智,感情有了出口,扭曲的心情逐漸穩定,而苦澀的暗戀心情也終究得已釋懷放下……


《秘密》東立


【梅太郎】
感覺上,梅太郎似乎已經到了一個瓶頸,儘管近來作品仍維持著以往一貫的迷濛悲傷與時光流轉的情調氣氛之水準,但主角人物卻總是有著言不及義、與令人摸不著頭緒的外在行為表現,完全不知道這堆男人在想什麼,為悲而悲反而悲不下去啊啊啊───,縱使梅太郎還不到「為賦新詞強說愁」那樣走火入魔的地步,但已經漸漸令我感覺不是很舒服。只能說,八木與小谷系列是她創作最顛峰的時期,而個人認為這本單行本也是她那時期的傑作之一!


《小心愛人就在身旁》大然


【石田育絵/石田育繪】
會觀注起石田育繪作品是從小說《愛上壞壞的你》那時開始(石田為插畫家之協力身份),不過連看了好幾本,才感慨起──原來石田育繪不是我的菜!一來、不特別偏愛她早期的可愛作風(跟劇情平不平淡完全無關),二來、近期走的腹黑路線更是與本人所偏好的劇情漸形漸遠。其實石田的畫風很OK,我很能接受這樣硬派的驃悍線條(筋肉派的則只能舉雙手投降),看不下去的主因在她描寫的愛情拉鋸戰上有種黏膩、愛嬌、不太乾脆也令人不痛快的意識感觀。唯有此本單行本較投我所好,戀愛策略的姿態與氣氛都有展現出來,有趣!


《未成年宣言》長鴻


【依田沙江美】
如果要我對依田沙江美說出最直接的印象,不外乎是傻呼呼與成人感情太複雜這兩個很沒交集的答案。早期獨鍾於校園漫,近期則以上班族為主,依田的漫畫一向非常熱鬧,時常上演大亂鬥的場面,比一般BL漫畫家更常出現跑龍套的插花人物,這點很有意思,讀者不用擔心整個校園或職場會充斥著令人絕倒的同志強烈磁場,作品乍看很歡樂,事實上劇情皆帶著一份幽暗的情緒,看多了心靈會感到些微沮喪與疲倦,故、請一本一本慢慢的翻閱吧。


《深夜的逐愛遊戲》大然


【楢崎壮太/楢崎壯太】
嗯……對我來說,閱覽楢崎作品如嚼雞肋。_。,其實她的配對多半沒出什麼差錯,但問題就出在她整個平靜無波與超展開的劇情之上,即使主角的職業危機四伏,劇情氣氛卻總是呈現出天下太平、五畜興旺、喜樂榮榮之光景,整個……平得讓人想哭啊,另外,劇情進展太過快速,一下子就OK的下場會令我萬分感慨,原來現代人所談的速食愛情是如此的光景啊。話又說回來,一本接著一本在原地設限又沒什麼糟糕之處,其實,這也算是她的優點吧?這部單行本也一樣,不過,兩組配對很可愛,雖然愛情投入度仍舊少之又少,但至少讓人看了心情很好。


《渴愛的野獸》尚禾


【天禅桃子/天禪桃子】
天禪漫畫向來閃亮亮、甜蜜蜜!唇和眼神固然別有風情、非常誘人,但因為老梗太多,內容多半乏善可陳,偶而倒是會像這樣來上一本還不錯看的作品。本書共有兩組配對,第一組個性天然的很有趣,劇情進展自然而不勉強,另外,感情交會時的心理挫折處理得比以往來得順暢,至於第二組的攻略雖然SOSO,不過至少有傳達到戀愛必定會傷人的主題精神。話說,天禪漫畫給我的落差感頗大,畫風看似純情,劇情愛慾卻是全開啊……(汗)


《真愛每一天》尚禾


【剣解/劍解】
個人是覺得,看劍解的漫畫會很鬱悶……我喜歡看的是感情攻略過程的後作用力,尤其是一方終於點頭的一剎那,醍醐灌頂到直想拍桌叫好,但劍解感情佈線的起與始終究沒有一個很明顯的輪廓,時常是不明不白地一下子就隨著主角跳入感情旋渦裡,個人頗不能適應這種作風,而且也搞不清楚彼此喜歡的契機究竟是什麼,但終究因為她的畫風真的很穩、很優雅,還是會租借她的漫畫來看。不過必需招認的是,劍解的配對裡,我最喜歡的反而是《黑色騎士》主角克利斯汀的父母親,其實絕大多數的BL漫畫家畫起BG漫怪腔怪調是不爭的事實(反之亦然),但劍解卻沒有那股隔閡感,由此看來,劍解很適合另外殺出一條BG漫路線也說不一定?!


《用手指撫慰的傷口》尚禾


【川唯東子】
川唯是少數作品很穩、沒有突槌、氣氛掌握得很好、佈線慎密的創作型漫畫家,她的故事性向來很豐富,而且會有種交響組曲的感覺──作品面貌時常會有多次一再折轉的詮釋手法──。在她的漫畫裡不會出現逆來順受、讓人狠狠哽到的感情攻略過程,但劇情多半都會營造出些微的悲愴氣氛,呃,事實上,這種氣氛不太合我的氣口,而且受方多具有個人不敢領教的傲嬌個性,但、還不錯,想看精緻又不是那麼公式的BL漫讀者,倒是可以從她的作品先著手。


《轉角,與愛邂逅》角川


【秋里和国/秋里和國】
秋里和國創作題材雖屬少女漫畫範疇,不過她的作品比其他人更早跨越性別意識,《三王一后》裡甚至起用雙性戀主角與三人所組成的禁忌家庭為結局,從跳脫一般價值觀的另類感情、到寫實與笑鬧兼具的歡樂小品、再到很平凡務實的戀情之作,秋里和國百無禁忌,而且從不綁手綁腳的爽快表達他人所不敢表達的情感。如這本漫畫,情節構成為單線發展,以秋夜的角度去描述同志感情之間種種的挫折、難題與不堪,內容反映出相當程度的現實與人性。其實,曾有陣子我挺畏懼於秋里和國如此秀麗的畫風,看出興趣後倒也頗能接受,畢竟她的少女漫都有一定的水準,嗯,說到這裡,也提醒了自己,找個時間應該來寫寫《空中羅曼史》書薦才對(摸摸下巴)。


《萬物皆由原子構成》東立


【やまがたさとみ/山縣聰美】
山縣是很少數會以大量文字佐以圖畫來表達內心狀態與情感進度的BL漫畫家,這部份處理不好的,多半有流於風花雪月、無病呻吟的下場,不過,山縣倒是掌控得恰到好處;又、不管是在構圖、抑或是情感發展上,山縣的文藝氣息向來很重。但即使如此,我也不認為她的作品就是同志文學,甚至可以說,她的作品帶著一種界於成年人與少男少女之間很晦澀又透明的微妙氣質,那是會在女性青漫中發現的特質。而作品質固然很高,事實上個人並不會特別去尋找她的漫畫來看(仍會看),太苦悶了,像這麼苦悶的,儘量將名額保留給小說來折騰我,至於漫畫,還是要越歡樂越好啊!囧rz


《感情回路》尖端
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La nuova interfaccia di Google Maps



Ecco come si presenta la nuova interfaccia di Google Maps dopo l'ultimo restyling. Obiettivo? Rendere il servizio ancora più semplice, funzionale ed intuitivo.

Da oggi infatti le diverse funzioni di Google Maps, come la creazione di percorsi stradali, mappe personalizzate e la ricerca di esercizi commerciali, sono accessibili direttamente da una casella centrale di ricerca, in pieno stile Google, e in modo ancora più semplice.

Provate a fare qualche ricerca e noterete da subito i primi cambiamenti.

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Wednesday, July 30, 2008

Fotografías de la última tormenta O Barco

Aquí os dejo las fotografías tomadas por Cristobal de la última tormenta que descargó en O Barco, el pasado día Domingo 27 de Julio de 2008.

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CATCLYSMIC TRANSGENERATIONAL SPRAWL

Who in their right mind would want to draw a strong line of demarcation between one "generation" and the next? In reading, editing and thinking around poetry I've resisted this tendency toward privileging one generation over another, periodizing, caging. I recall reading a wonderful statement by Phillip Whalen which, if i can crudely paraphrase, goes: There is no generation gap / scratch an American smell a cop. And in the 1970s it seemed perfectly natural for the Language Poets to absorb Jackson Mac Low, who had been producing textual and visual work since the mid-1940s, into the sphere of their own poetic production.

This to say, I was quite excited to come across the following statement in a letter from Pound to Zukofsky:

What's age to do with verbal manifestation, what's history to do with it,—good gord lets disassociate ijees—I want to show the poetry that's being written today—whether the poets are of masturbating age or the fathers of families don't matter.

And though he exlcuded Rexroth, Don Allen did, after all, include a fifty year-old Charles Olson in his NAP anthology. As a close friend often says, time is fascist—and those editors and anthologists hell bent on periodizing are, more often than not, the shock troops of this fascism. And the drive to bring out hack work by younger poets—aren't we tired of privileging youth, lusting after it, exalting it? Yo—I don't want some kid's crayon drawing on my fridge, nor do i want them anthologized, bound and on my bookshelves.
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Transit directions: Now on S60 & Windows Mobile

A few weeks ago we released Google Maps for mobile with Transit directions for BlackBerry and Java-based handsets. Now, with the release of version 2.2 of the application for Symbian S60 (3rd edition or later) and Windows Mobile (2005 or later), we're happy to say that Transit directions will be available to a bunch more smartphone users around the world.

Transit directions on these platforms work just like they do on the BlackBerry version of the app (watch the demo video). Simply bring up Directions from the main menu and you'll see a second tab labeled Transit (or Public Transport), where you can request a route using only public transportation. You'll receive a number of alternatives that take you (car-free) to your destination. Transit directions are available on Google Maps in more than 50 cities. So whether you live in or are passing through Zurich, Ottawa, Bordeaux or Chicago -- and plenty of places in between -- you can have Transit schedules in your pocket at all times. Stay tuned as we continue working with transit agencies to support more and more cities across the globe!

You'll find a number of other features in this new version of Google Maps for mobile for WinMo and S60: star-ratings for businesses will help you get a feel for what other people think, your search results show up faster than ever, and user-generated content will now surface in your search results -- opening up a whole new world of geo content on your phone. Look for the blue result markers when you search for "ruins in london," for example.

To get this latest version of Google Maps for mobile with Transit, simply point your mobile browser to google.com/gmm. Happy trails.

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Tuesday, July 29, 2008

La Petita Edat de Gel, causada per un mínim en el cicle solar?

Al final de l'Edat Mitjana, l'Hemisferi Nord va patir un refredament climàtic que, entre altres coses, va fer avançar les glaceres muntanya avall i per això és conegut com la Petita Edat del Gel (PEG). La PEG va finalitzar cap el segle XVIII, quan es va iniciar un escalfament que encara dura i que molt probablement és degut a la combinació de causes naturals i antròpiques. L'existència de la PEG es coneix al partir d'evidències indirectes (proxies) que permeten reconstruir els canvis climàtics passats abans de l'existència d'instruments meteorològics (estudis paleoclimàtics), com ara l'anàlisi de fòssils preservats als sediments de llacs o l'estudi de documents històrics. La causa de la PEG encara es debat. Fins ara, les dues hipòtesis més probables estan relacionades amb les erupcions volcàniques i els petits canvis cíclics que es produeixen en la irradiància solar. Se sap que durant les fases de més activitat volcànica, la radiació solar que escalfa la Terra és menor degut a una capa més espessa de pols i cendres que actua de filtre. Per altra banda, els Sol té un cicle intern amb màxims i mínims d'emissió d'energia, que tenen diverses manifestacions, com per exemple les taques solars. La PEG, doncs, podria haver-se desencadenat per un augment general de l'activitat volcànica o bé per l'existència d'un mínim en el cicle solar.

En aquest estudi es confirma que la PEG també va ocórrer als tròpics i que la causa més probable és la variació d'energia incident degut als cicles solars. Anteriorment, un estudi palinològic (a partir del pol·len preservat en torberes) ja havia permès enregistrar un descens de la vegetació de l'alta muntanya dels Andes, degut a un descens de la temperatura. Això va succeir entre els segles XIII i XVIII i es va correlacionar amb la PEG (Rull et al. 1987). Ara, hem aconseguit demostrar que durant aquest període hi va haver quatre màxims d'avenç glaciar, al voltant dels anys 1265, 1520, 1685 i 1810, que coincideixen perfectament amb quatre mínims del cicle solar. Tot enregistrat a partir de proxies preservats en sediments lacustres d'alta muntanya. L'avenç de les glaceres s'ha deduït de l'augment d'un parámetre físic que s'anomena susceptibilitat magnètica i que és un reflex de la quantitat de minerals magnètics presents en els sediments, que només poden provenir de l'erosió que les glaceres produeixen sobre la roca mare de la conca al voltant del llac. Els mínims en el cicle solar s'han deduït de l'augment en la concentració d'isòtops radiactius de Carboni i Berili (14C, 10Be), que són més abundants quan menor és la radiació solar que arriba a la Terra. A més, hem pogut mesurar que el descens de temperatura al tròpic durant la PEG va ser d'uns 3ºC i la precipitació va augmentar un 20% (ambdues són necessàries per a que les glaceres avancin). Això ho hem deduït a partir d'un calibratge previ que permet estimar dades climàtiques a partir de proxies biològics, com ara el pol·len (Rull 2006).

Aquests resultats ens mostren que les variacions cícliques d'irradiància solar, encara que relativament petites en magnitud, són capaces de produir variacions climàtiques importants. Ara falta per esbrinar quins són els mecanismes amplificadors responsables d'aquest efecte. Un cop conegut això, serà possible predir amb més exactitud les possibles conseqüències del canvi climàtic actual i futur.


Glaceres i taques solars. A l'esquerra, la glacera Humboldt, que baixa del pic del mateix nom (4942 m). S'observa l'extensió que tenia la glacera durant la PEG, que arribava a cobrir la llacuna que s'observa a la part de baix. A la dreta, vista de l'esfera solar amb les taques, que canvien de nombre d'acord amb els cicles d'irradiància.


Gràfic on es veu la correspondència exacta (destacada amb franges grises) entre els avenços de les glaceres durant la PEG, a la part superior, i els mínims d'irradiància, a la part inferior.

Article: "Solar modulation of little ice age climate in the tropical Andes",Polissar, P. J., Abbott, M. B., Wolfe, A. P., Bezada, M., Rull, V. & Bradley, R. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 103: 8937-8942. S. 2006

Extret de clica aquí

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BVI FSC Issues Advisory Warning Informing the Public on Pyramid Schemes

Last week the second Advisory Warning was published by the BVI FSC, concerning NewNetQuest as a potential pyramid scheme targeting BVI residents. The document reveals general principles of the scheme referred to as a pyramide, and its main point based on the fact that those who have initiated the scheme get benefit, while those in its bottom lose most. It is especially noted that pyramid schemes may be masked as legitimate investment opportunities, offering packages which may be purchased for varying amounts, high investments return, and/or share percentage of net advertising revenue.

BVI FSC made the public aware that it does not regulate such schemes, and has not authorised or endorsed NewNetQuest. Members of the public are advised to exercise extreme caution dealing with NewNetQuest and other similar schemes, and are also invited to provide the Commission with any information on questionable entities operating in or from within the BVI.

The advisory warning, issued under Section 4 (1)(1) of the Financial Services Commission Act, 2001, was published on 25 July 2008 and signed by Robert A. Mathavious, Managing Director/CEO of the Commission.
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Il canale YouTube di Google Italia


Il blog di Google Italia, così come lo conoscete, è ormai da tempo uno strumento istituzionale utilizzato da questa azienda per comunicare novità, progetti e strategie ma anche e soprattuto per confrontarci con tutti voi.


Per chi non lo sapesse da qualche tempo a questo canale se n'è aggiunto un secondo, ideato ancora una volta per condividere informazioni e tenerci in contatto. Si tratta del canale YouTube di Google Italia (www.youtube.com/googleitalia), uno spazio dove potrete trovare video tutorial su molti dei nostri prodotti (da Google Sky ad iGoogle), consigli per capire come realizzare in poche mosse un campagna pubblicitaria online con AdWords e un'intera sezione dedicata al tema della privacy: come proteggere i vostri dati personali, il funzionamento dei cookie ecc.

Tra gli ultimi video caricati nella playlist prodotti alcuni tutorial sul funzionamento delle diverse applicazioni di Google Maps: come realizzare una mappa personalizzata, trovare esercizi commerciali e personalizzare un percorso stradale.

Nella speranza che questo canale vi sia d'aiuto faremo del nostro meglio per tenerlo costantemente aggiornarlo, anche sulla base delle vostre esigenze.


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NEW BOSS SAME AS THE OLD BOSS

NPR reports that World Trade Organization negotiations have collapsed this week. In an election year it might be important to remember that it was the Clinton administration which threw the US into the WTO and that Congress still has yet to ratify US membership in this organization — which means the US is technically not a part of it, but yet has a surprising amount of sway in these negotiations. The US is precisely the reason talks have collapsed, the US accusing China and India of "insisting on too much protection for their farmers" (BBC). In India food prices have skyrocketed. And this is to mention nothing of the strangle-hold US-based corporations like Monsanto have had on their agricultural and food supplies for the past few decades, forcing Indian farmers to bend to their will through introducing highly destructive GM seed, pesticides and other products into their agricultural economy.

But it's not only in India that food prices have skyrocketed. While lumpenproles in developed countries continue to enjoy the dollar-menu at McDonald's — even though some may have lost their homes — the working poor in much of the underdeveloped world have seen food prices double and even triple, creating a market-driven food crisis. In other words, like the potato famine of 1848 or the Ukrainian famine of 1932 (which continues to be memorialized annually in the Ukrainian Orthodox church), this food crisis has less to do with climate conditions than with the machinations of the market. The food is there, being produced. This crisis, like most other famines, is man-made and determined by market prices. Much of this is naturally connected to the rising cost of oil and petroleum-based products.

Food prices have risen in the US (grains and cereals by 41%) but this increase is slight compared to the rising cost of foods in underdeveloped nations. Food riots have been common in much of Africa, but also in nations as geographically disparate as Bangladesh and Haiti, whose government completely fell apart as the result of food riots back in April. This to say, most of those hardest hit by these rising costs are curiously not white.

Many of the farmers Chinese and Indian WTO officials seek to protect are subsistence farmers. Thus while the US refuses to lower tariffs in key industries (auto and manufacturing) and continues to provide subsidies which give American farmers an edge on the global market, US trade reps like Susan Schwab are struggling to muscle China, India and other nations into lowering the import tariffs that protect their farmers. All of this is further complicated by the fact that underdeveloped nations like Uruguay and Bangladesh have been pitted against other underdeveloped nations in negotiations over trade barriers and protection.

These issues are crucial in an election year — especially one where the lesser of the two meatheads comes to us in the form of a messianic figure. Obama is wealthy. He's connected to the Chicago School of Economics. In fact, Obama's already selected staunch Wal-Mart defender Jason Furman to lead his economic policy team. Here Naomi Klein's article "Obama's Chicago Boys" has been immensely useful. Little of this information appears on his own website, his Wikipedia entry or even the wide range of essays, columns and articles produced by Obama's more conservative critics. In other words, on the terrain of global trade, it's unlikely that Obama's policies will be markedly different from Clinton or Bush administration policies. After all, NAFTA came into effect on Clinton's watch. As Klein writes:

Now is the time to worry about Obama's Chicago Boys and their commitment to fending off serious attempts at regulation. It was in the two and a half months between winning the 1992 election and being sworn into office that Bill Clinton did a U-turn on the economy. He had campaigned promising to revise NAFTA, adding labor and environmental provisions and to invest in social programs. But two weeks before his inauguration, he met with then-Goldman Sachs chief Robert Rubin, who convinced him of the urgency of embracing austerity and more liberalization.

Liberalization here of course means privatization, just as so much of the war in Iraq has been "liberalized" rather than regulated, strategic security missions continuing to be farmed out to corporations like KBR that make of the Middle East a sort of wild west, a lawless region that truly understands the destructive currents of neoliberal laissez-faire policy. And here I wonder how the economic policies of a candidate like Obama, both at home and abroad, will act on or inflect his foreign policy. If he's already selected figures like Furman to deliver economic advice, who else is lurking outside the limits of his down-home neo-populist rhetoric? Might we also find executives associated with Halliburton, Lockheed Martin and other corporations deeply invested in the war milling around the Oval Office in January?

The complicated relation of world trade to US foreign policy, a policy presently characterized by protracted war, is crucial here. The deficit is immense, ringing in at around $450 billion. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan continue — and it is unlikely either of those nations will see the withdrawal of US and coalition troops during the next presidential term. In some ways I find myself more frightened by Obama's connection to Chicago and Friedmanism than Alan Greenspan's connection to Ayn Rand. The distance between one party and another is almost negligible here. It's important to remember here that the ongoing war in Iraq didn't end under Clinton, it was simply elided by the media. The bombings continued, almost without interruption. And much like the international community's long delay in entering into the Rwandan crisis in the 1990s, we see a similar delay in responding to the current rape crisis in the Congo where rape has been deployed as a strategic military tactic. But this is the Congo which, along with Mozambique and other West African countries, supplies the metallic ore coltan to much of the world, an ore which we find in everything from cell phones to computers to digital cameras. It is coltan in fact which allows me to upload this entry to the web. On the terrain of the market, is there something to be gained by not intervening in the Congo crisis?

Given the complexity of all of this, the overdetermined relation of economic and foreign and domestic policies — including those policies and less formal trends that govern the ebb and flow of media and culture — I find it hard to believe that casting a ballot can effect change in any meaningful way. As Ed Dorn said, if voting changed anything it would be illegal. The new boss, if not the same as the old boss, will never be too markedly different. Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe questioned years ago the limits of political participation, asking why it's so difficult to imagine a form of participation broader, more immediate and more inclusive, than the token forms of participation offered to us through western democracy. After the failures of the anti-globalization movement of the late 1990s and early '00s this decade, in terms of struggle, has been characterized by a debilitating and deeply fatalistic sense of powerlessness. But if Obama swings into the Oval Office next year perhaps his presidency will simply give us a greater sense of agency, even if largely illusory as it was under Clinton.
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Monday, July 28, 2008

THEY ARE FLYING PLANES

The most mysterious package arrived in the mail this morning containing two publications in a transparent acetate envelope plastered with stamps. One of the two saddle-stitched books is the magazine They Are Flying Planes. Rather than attaching a name to the sticker bearing a return address, there is only the title of the journal. Further, although there's an address included in the journal, the name(s) of the editor(s) are not disclosed. It begins with a table of contents, but once we move past the table of contents the names of authors and artists have been omitted and, like the early numbers of Cid Corman's Origin, do not appear beside their work.

The roundup of poets in the journal is an amazing blend of poets and artists, some I know well and others I'm encountering here for the first time: Michael Basinski, Ryan Gallagher, Lisa Jarnot, Clint Krute, Willem John Doherty, Carol Ann Davis, Helen Phillips, Orlando White, Patrick Durgin and Jen Hofer, Randall Sellers, Evan Kennedy, Tim Morris, Adam Thompson, DG Nanouk Okpik, Edward Hopely, Matt Reeck, Anselm Berrigan, Michael Keenan, Derek Fenner, Dustin Williamson, Tetra Balestri, Ed Go, Christopher Stackhouse, Mary Millsap, Cat-Bear, Nora Almeida, Buck Downs, Jessica Pavone, Thom Lessener.


As an object the magazine is something to behold. Its format is large, the cover simply a large (18" x 12.5") white envelope folded in half with Japanese endpapers and two separate signatures, both of which are hand-stitched to the cover. A small handful of ephemeral items also appear in the magazine — two small broadsides, one on translucent vellum, a screen-printed three-color visual image, and a small screen-printed envelope which bears the image of a hand giving the okay sign and is filled with grains of something or other (it makes noise).


The journal has a whimsical Fluxus feel, something like Justin Katko's Plantarchy and Critical Documents publications, but was clearly assembled with tremendous care. The thing is interactive, it demands a lot of the reader, makes of the reader something of a participant or performer in the project. The envelope is to be shaken and one must be careful to keep the broadsides from falling out. When reading through the poems this morning I was thrilled by the absence of names, an editorial gesture that forced me to read the poems as anonymous or authorless or collaborative works -- outside any relation to a particular name. What I encountered were simply texts standing on their own -- unless, of course, I flipped back to the table of contents to track down the name of the poet or artist. Such a strange book. Given the size of the thing, flipping back and forth from poem or visual piece to the contents page demands much of a reader, forcing the reader to move in strange ways and focus on the magazine. It controls the situation in a sense — much like a car might when it breaks down.

And what does it mean for an editor or group of editors from Brooklyn, a stone's throw away from Ground Zero, to call a journal of the arts They Are Flying Planes?

Unfortunately I missed out on the first number of the journal. But I look forward to getting future numbers.

The second book, Mike Basinski's auXin, is similarly wonderful. Black bristol cover with screen-printed title. Visual images screen-printed across the inside of the cover. And the text:

the fungi constitute a kingdom
of their own mutations including
me, deletion, duplication
the arrangements, translocations, inversions one
word witch two

This brought out through Amphibole Books, which I imagine has some connection to TAFP. The address: 570 45th Street Brooklyn NY 11220. No website.
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NONE MORE BLACK

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Sunday, July 27, 2008

●2008年6月28日の杉並区→中央区隅田川サイクリング(1)


このブロブ立ち上げのきっかけは、2008.6.28の杉並区→中央区隅田川のサイクリングだった。日頃MTBを乗り回している方達にとっては、たいした距離ではないだろうが、いい歳になってからMTBを始めた私にとっては、史上2番目の距離になる。

いつものように、iPod touchを胸に刺し、杉並を出発、方南通りを東へ。やがて中野区に入り、まもなく山手通りというあたりで、左折。中野坂上に行きたいのだが、山手通りはまだ工事中で、道がつぎはぎだらけ、あまり気持ち良く走れない。そこで裏道、東京工芸大中野キャンパス付近から、中野坂上の高層ビルの裏手を通って青梅街道へ。


そのまま青梅街道で山手通りを突っ切り、神田川を渡り、成子坂下の坂を上り、西新宿駅を通って、新宿大ガードへ。ここで気づいた。土曜日だということを。大ガード付近の道は大渋滞、歩道は人であふれている。とても靖国通り側には行けない。たとえ行けたとしても、長い一文字ハンドルを人にぶつけぬよう気をつけながらMTBを押して歩かねばならない。もぞもぞ動くなにか別の生き物の様な人の頭の波をみていると気が遠くなる。


ここはちょっと休憩。いい歳になって始めたサイクリングはいつもこうなる。大ガードの手前の交差点を左へ。小滝橋通りを大久保方面へ。こちらは幸い車も人も多くない。少し行った新宿百人町交差点の手前にコーヒー店Dがある。このあたりは無論路上駐輪禁止、線路沿いの有料駐輪場も満杯。そんな所にあってこのコーヒー店Dはありがたい。店の前に、4、5台詰めれば6、7台の駐輪場があるのだ。よくある歩道にはみ出した駐輪をせずに、ゆったりMTBが収まり歩道より一段高い立派な駐輪場だ。しかも店内は、人の頭が波打つ繁華街からほんの少し離れただけなのに土日はいつもすいている。さらにここは無線LANが使える。まったりとコーヒーをすすりながら、iPod touchでメールをチェック、Googlemapsで行順のチェックと地図のキャッシュ。 以下(2)へつづく。

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Friday, July 25, 2008

Rosso di Mattina....




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El volcà Chaitén torna a l'acció.

A principis de maig, va entrar en erupció el volcà Chaitén (Xile). Algunes vegades ja em parlat de l’erupció d’aquest volcà (clic aquí), que amb les erupcions d’altres volcans, he anat comentant la possibilitat d’un refredament lleuger de la temperatura global del planeta.


Aquests dies, aquest volcà a intensificat la seva activitat, originant fins a 200 tremolors amb una mitja de 8 moviments per hora, alguns d’aquests s’han sentit fins a 300 quilòmetres de distància.


La intensificació eruptiva del volcà, a obligat al desallotjament de tota la població de la zona i com a principis de maig, a posar en màxima alerta tota la zona més propera al volcà.

Aquest volcà, se’l considerava inactiu i segons els científics, la seva última erupció va tenir lloc l’any 7420 a.C. Avui, en canvi, és un dels volcans més actius del planeta i des de principis de maig es troba abocant cendres i gasos constantment i amb fortes erupcions regularment. Fins i tot, algunes de les fortes erupcions han vingut acompanyades de material incandescent i algunes llengües de lava.

En la seqüència de les imatges del satèl·lit de principis de maig, podem veure com les cendres van cobrir tota la Patagonia argentina. Durant els propers dies el fum del volcà va arribar fins els 17 quilòmetres d’altura obligant a tallar el tràfic aeri en diferents aeroports ubicats a centenars de quilòmetres del Chaitén.

Imatge del satèl·lit Terra de la NASA amb els seus sensors MODIS el dia 3 de maig. S'aprecia la columna de fum provinent del volcà creuant la Patagonia argentina.

Una altre imatge del sensor MODIS del satèl·lit Terra presa el 5 de maig on s'aprecia el desplaçament cap a l'est de la columna de cendres volcàniques.



Video de l'erupció del Chaitén de principis de maig.

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CHARLES BERNSTEIN . CREELEY . COMMONS

In a recent and especially useful essay on Creeley called "Hero of the Local," Charles Bernstein discusses the relation of the particular to the common. BOO. Both terms are highly abstract, fungible and often completely unmanageable. Abstraction's not always such a terrible thing, but it's especially bad when it discloses itself as something other than (an) abstraction, as something like an impenetrable and sovereign "particular" or "singularity." In the case of each, we've beaten these terms to death, ground them down, sapped whatever residual meaning might be lurking within them. Each time I hear the word "particular" I want to vomit. And I imagine this nausea has something to do with the excess of meaning that characterizes the word — its meaning is indeterminate, undecidable, utterly beyond location. Particular. From the moment I first encountered poetry it was one of those words that was — without mercy — beaten into me. The particular this. The particular that. It didn't set the terms of the conversation so much as it shackled the conversation, narrowed it, presiding over it like a little dictator. It deluded us into believing that the multiple, the reproducible, was singular and singularly unique. This particular moved through the world like a god or Big Brother, at once everywhere and nowhere. But this particular dictator ...

The same is the case for "common." What "common" and "particular" hold in common is their malleability. We can do any damn thing we want with these words, fiddle with them to meet our ends, stretch them like pennies to make ends meet. It is precisely because neither are particular in any essential way that each are so useful to so many.

But what happens when neither the particular (difference / singularity) and the common (sameness) are not framed as mutually exclusive terms, but terms that collapse into one another. What happens when the common is defined not as sameness but the terrain within which multiple differences or singularities reside. As Bernstein says of Creeley's poetic practice:

Creeley's equal emphasis on both the particular and the common is another one of his paradoxes: for it is the particular within the common that is the obscure object of his desire and frequent frustration. The common is not one thing (or one idea) believed by all but a shared space in which our individual differences converge without disappearing. A commons is a place of dispute and provisional agreements, a convention not a conversion, a particular place not a universal claim. In Creeley's prosody, and here the mark of Zukofsky is evident, we count by ones: a serial order in which the contingency of the next is honored and each word (nouns no more than prepositions) carries its own weight. This is a poetics not of subordination but of the sublimity of the modular and the local. Each part doing its part against an horizon of a whole that never arrives.

This notion of the common is not only spatial but also exterior to difference, outside of singularity, delimited by the "horizon of a whole that never arrives." But a "common" space can also be internal or interior and may have a location in (or jurisdiction over) consciousness, the unconscious, etc. What about difference within? Can we conceptualize each and every material being and / or body as (part of) a common within which contrary subjectivities compete, converse or negotiate with one another. Identity is many, right? And competing ideologies (the production mills of subjectivities) move through the body and act on it, determining its movement and position within the world, its relation not only to others but ultimately to itself. If discourses or ideologies pass through bodies, do these bodies — these singular beings, these particulars — also become part of "the common"? Doesn't something of the common reside within each particular? But perhaps this is the paradox Bernstein refers to in Creeley.
___________________________________

ADDENDUM: I've decided to construct what I would like to call THE PARTICULAR STICK. I imagine this as a sort of truncheon or fraternity paddle with the word "particular" inscribed on it. It is for beating people. Into submission.
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●2008年7月21日方南町→西永福→桜上水→千歳烏山

タイトルに「MTBで東京横断」なんてたいそうなことを書いてしまった。
1日で東京横断する訳ではなく、東京を横に走る中央線の下(地図の)2、3kmを平行して走る京王線とその延長線上の都営地下鉄新宿線、東京メトロ有楽町線に沿ったあたりの日々の散策にすぎない。

世間では、iPhone 3Gの噂でもちきり? 少なくともIT関連企業で働く私の周りの世間では。
この日も喫茶店で早めの昼食をとりながら、iPod touchでメールを見ていたら、席を立とうとしている隣の管理職風の男性から「おっ、これiPhoneですか?」と声をかけられた。
iPod touchと伝えたが、話が通ってないようで、「iPoneて薄いんですね〜」と好奇の目を向けつつ店を出て行った。ですからこれはiPod touchですってば。iPoneはもっと厚いです。持ってないから分からないけど…

iPoneは買わない、当分は。携帯持ってるし、iPod touchで用は足りてるし、重そうだし、それよりもなによりも維持費がた、た、高い!!

ただファームウェアの2.0は購入した。
利点は、ソフトをいろいろ追加できること。ジェイルブレイクに失敗して、データを全て失ったトラウマから解放された。

また、日本語入力キーが改善された。携帯風の入力は自分には不要だが、ローマ字入力が以前の英文入力と同じ大きいサイズのキーになってやや打ち間違いが減った。

そして何よりもメールがキャッシュされるようになったのがありがたい。
メールはGmailを使っているが、以前は無線LANに繋がっていないと、メールはサブジェクトのみで、キャッシュが少なく、数個分しか本文を読むことができなかった。今はほとんどの本文を読むことができる。


さて、iPod touchをフル充電して、MTBで出発。方南町で銀行の用事を済ませ、コーヒー店のDで早めの昼食。ここのDは無線LANが入っているので、メールやら天気予報やらHPをチェックし、本日の行程、といってもほんの数キロだが、GoogleMapsで表示し、キャッシュ。こうしておけば無線LANが切れていても、数キロ分の地図は確認できる。

方南町を出発、方南八幡通を西へ。そして豊玉水道を左折、この道はあまり広くないが、青梅街道と甲州街道を一直線で結んでいる。甲州街道をぶつかる所にあるスーパー「いなげや」でちょっと買い物。それから甲州街道を渡り、京王線桜上水駅へ。この駅の北側は最近整備され、駐輪場ができた。そこに駐輪。料金は、1時間まで無料、その後6時間?(多分)ごとに100円。

コーヒー店D桜上水店で休憩兼買い物をカバンに詰め替え。この店は、前にきた時、無線LANが使えたのだがこの日はだめだった。それでもiPod touchの連絡先に入れておいたYahooNewsをチェック。

30分程で店を出て、駐輪場前の京王線に平行する真っすぐな道を西へ。ほどなく上北沢駅へ。駅前のスーパー「サミット」でまたちょっと買い物。

甲州街道に戻り、西へ。環八を渡ると道は二つに分かれる。ここは左の甲州街道旧道へ。ほどなくして、トイレに行きたくなり、MTBを止め、GoogleMapsを見ると右手に公園を発見。そこへ向かい、トイレがあることを視認してMTBを止める。

公園名の「南烏山りんりん広場」をiPod touchのメモに記入しようとiPod touchを取り出しロックを解除すると、先ほどトイレを探した時のままになっていたGoogleMapsが最初に表示され、なんとそこに現在位置を示すGPSの青い輪が現れた。ということはこの公園にはどこかの無線LANが漏れてるようだ。ちなみに、iPod touchのGPS機能は、無線LAN基地の位置を割り出しているにすぎなくて、iPoneのGPS機能とは比べ物にならない位貧弱だが、それでもそれなりに役に立つ。

用を済まし、さらに西へ、南烏山駅入口交差点を左折。今日の目的地南烏山商店街へ。昼食が軽かったので小腹がすいてきた。MTBを烏山図書館駐輪場に止めさせてもらい、お気に入りのラーメン店へ、が、しかし「東秀・北口店」がなくなっている! 駅南側に同じチェーン店がもう一軒あるのでそちらへ向かう。あった。南側の店はまだ営業していた。しかし、店内は大入り大混雑。あきらめ再び北側へ戻り、コーヒー店Bへ。この店は残念ながら無線LANがない。

とるものをとって、100円ショップ「ダイソー」で買い物。この店は100ショップとしてはかなり大きい。ゆっくり探せば必ず掘り出し物に巡り会う。同じ系列の新宿「PePe」にある「ダイソー」のほうがフロアが広くゆったりしているが、品数ではこちらのほうが勝っているかも。

買い物を済ませ、帰宅の途に。甲州街道を東へ一直線。


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Thursday, July 24, 2008

Gmail for iPhone with Richer UI now in 17 more languages

If you use Gmail in Chinese (Simplified or Traditional), Danish, Dutch, UK English, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil or Portugal), Russian, Spanish, or Swedish you can now access a richer Gmail experience for your iPhone that was previously only available in US English. While you've been able to access the integrated Google.com for iPhone in many languages since May, you'll now see a multilingual version of Gmail for iPhone that leverages the AJAX capabilities of the iPhone browser and features address autocomplete, a smoother UI, and mail pre-fetching.

This version of Gmail for iPhone also includes performance and reliability enhancements including faster loading and better support for reading your email in both portrait and landscape modes. These improvements have also been rolled out in US English, as well as for Google Apps email users.

To try out the updated Gmail for iPhone in your language, go to Gmail.com (or the Google Mail site for your country) in your desktop browser, sign in to your Google account, select "Settings," and change your "Gmail display language" to your desired language. Then, go to Google.com in your iPhone or iPod Touch web browser, select the "Gmail" tab, and sign in.

Google Apps users can go to mail.google.com/a/your-domain.com in your desktop browser and then www.google.com/m/a/your-domain.com in your iPhone browser, where "your-domain.com" is replaced with your actual domain name.

携帯からの電子メールをお楽しみください!

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SCHLESINGER, MIMEO MIMEO &C

Kyle Schlesinger launched a message this morning wondering if I was familiar with Jeremy James Thompson's letterpress work. The work is quite extraordinary, Thompson insisting on rethinking letterpress broadsides not as single-author projects but as truly collaborative projects beginning with a poem and sprawling outward to include poetic and critical responses to that poem. This approach to broadside design is truly dialogic, and Thompson's use of color bold, asking as much of a reader's eyes as the work asks of the mind.

I always find myself completely taken by Kyle's attention to the forms and technologies that mediate texts. For him the bibliographic and material aspects of a poem scarcely ever take a backseat to the textual or intellectual production of a poem.

Kyle's recently invested tremendous energy in promoting the work of Ted Greenwald — and this coupled with countless essays, lectures and constant blog postings on the work of bookmakers, publishers and letterpress artists suggests a lot about his sense of poetry and its relation to material production. For him the proximity between the textual production of a poem and its material production collapses — maybe not entirely, but enough to suggest that a poem is best thought through the limits or possibilities of its material production, through the complex of technologies which first brought it into being and carry it across time.

Mimeo Mimeo, which he coedits with Jed Birmingham, focuses almost exclusively on bookmaking and the material production of the poem. As he and Birmingham write in the inaugural issue of the journal:

Mimeo Mimeo is a forum for critical and cultural perspecives on the Mimeograph Revolution, Artists' Books and the Literary Fine Press .... this periodical features essays, interviews, images, correspondence, artifacts, manifestos, poems, and reflections on the graphic and material conditions of contemporary poetry and language arts. Taking our cue from Steve Clay and Rodney Phillips' ground-breaking book, A Secret Location on the Lower East Side and its corresponding exhibition at the New York Public Library, we see the mimeograph as one among many printing technologies (letterpress, offset, silkscreen, photocopiers, computers, etc.) that enabled poets, artists and editors to become independent publishers. We have no allegiance to any particular medium or media.

The journal includes images which compliment each essay or interview but these images also reinforce the last line of their mission statement. There is no privileging of one medium or media over another. From Jed Birmingham's essay on Jeff Nuttall's My Own Mag to Kyle's long and electric interview with Alastair Johnston, images are used to great effect, covering without discrimination a wide range of approaches to publishing and book making. Fucking brilliant.

Digital images of the entire run of Nuttall's My Own Mag can be viewed through the Reality Studio site.

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Nuovi template per Google Docs

L'ultima novità per gli amanti di Google Docs sono i nuovi template: una galleria che raggruppa già centinaia di layout per documenti, fogli di calcolo e presentazioni.

Poca fantasia su come tenere conto delle spese domestiche? In cerca di un nuovo look per il vostro curriculum o semplicemente di un layout d'impatto per la prossima presentazione? Direi che ora avete solo l'imbarazzo della scelta. Basta usare i nuovi template, creati per essere condivisi, farvi risparmiare tempo e dare un nuovo look ai vostri documenti.

Al momento la funzione è disponibile solo in inglese ma in attesa che venga localizzata ecco un piccolo consiglio su come accedervi da subito. Entrate in Google Documenti, fate clic su "Impostazioni" (in alto a destra) e cambiate le impostazioni linguistiche da italiano ad inglese. In questo modo la prossima volta che farete clic sul tab "New", trovere un nuovo link. "From template" che vi darà accesso al portfolio di template creati fino ad oggi.

Abbiamo categorizzato i layout per formato d'uso (documenti, fogli di lavoro o presentazioni) e finalità (CV e lettere di presentazione, calendari, business, statistiche ecc.)

Una volta utilizzato il primo template non ne potrete più fare a meno e in attesa che siano disponibili anche dall'interfaccia italiana può essere interessante familiarizzare con i layout presenti nella galleria inglese.


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Meteorología en el MUNDO

"Dolly amenaza con convertirse en huracán y se dirige a Tejas"
El Gobierno mexicano declara la 'alerta naranja' en la zona de la península de Yucatán.- La tormenta tiene vientos de hasta 85 kilómetros por hora
Dolly amenaza con convertirse en huracán y se dirige hacia el sur de Tejas, han pronosticado hoy los servicios metereológicos estadounidenses. Las autoridades del Estado de Quintana Roo, en el Caribe mexicano, han declarado la alerta naranja (peligro alto) por la tormenta tropical Dolly, mientras que la secretaria de Gobierno, Rosario Ortiz, ha anunciado además la evacuación de una franja costera de unos cien kilómetros entre las localidades de Playa del Carmen y Tulum.

"Dolly se aproximará a la costa oeste del Golfo de México el martes en la noche. Se vaticina un fortalecimiento y podría convertirse en un huracán mañana", advirtió el Centro Nacional de Huracanes (CNH) de EEUU en su boletín de las 18.00 GMT de hoy. La tormenta emergió hoy en las aguas cálidas del Golfo de México, un factor que sirve para fortalecer los sistemas tropicales, y se desplaza a gran velocidad a unos 30 kilómetros por hora hacia el oeste-noroeste, con vientos de hasta 85 kilómetros por hora.

La tormenta, que ha dejado fuertes lluvias en Cancún, está afectando a los numerosos turistas, españoles y de otras nacionalidades, que veranean estos días en la zona más turística de México. El presidente de la Asociación de Hoteles de Cancún, Jesús Almaguer, aseguró antes de que la tormenta tocara tierra, que sólo en Cancún hay 45.000 turistas y tranquilizó a los familiares: "Todos están seguros y tranquilos.No hay ningún problema".

El estado de alerta entró en funcionamiento las 16:30 de ayer, hora local (23.30 en España). El portavoz de Protección Civil en Quintana Roo, Juan Granados, ha explicado que la medida afectará a 100 de los 800 kilómetros de costa del Estado, donde están las localidades de Banco Chinchorro, Punta Herrero y María Elena.

Dolly, que avanza hacia el sur del estado de Tejas, es la cuarta tormenta tropical de la temporada de huracanes del Atlántico y entró de forma inesperada ayer en Yucatán. Protección Civil determinará en el transcurso del día las acciones preventivas.

Hasta el momento se han habilitado 14 refugios en todo el estado y han sido evacuadas al menos 250 personas de Punta Allen, pequeño puerto pesquero del municipio de Tulum, pero se espera que sólo en esta región se evacuen al menos a mil turistas. Uno de los tres refugios de que dispone ya ha comenzado a recibir gente de las colonias que podrían verse más afectadas. Los puertos marítimos están cerrados, aunque el aeropuerto de Cancún todavía funciona con normalidad.

Fuente: El PaísAny source

¿Cómo están de Humedad nuestros suelos?

La Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET) nos muestra en su web, de forma periódica, la cantidad de humedad que contienen los suelos de España. Esta es expresada en forma de porcentaje con respecto a la saturación que es el 100%, es decir, cuando el suelo está “tope de agua”.
Como es normal, debido a la falta de precipitaciones y a las altas temperaturas, gran parte del solar ibérico tiene un porcentaje de humedad muy bajo y por tanto presentan un carácter muy seco. Tal es el caso del municipio de O Barco, donde el suelo permanece poco húmedo, con un porcentaje de entre el 25/50%; a la espera de las lluvias tardo – estivales, si es que estas llegan. Seguiremos informando de esta variable durante los próximos meses.
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關於腦的盲點、迷思與誤解--大腦開竅手冊《書刊》


書刊名:大腦開竅手冊(Welcome to Your Brain: Why You Lose Your Car Keys but Never Forget How to Drive and Other Puzzies of Everyday Life)
作 者:阿瑪特、王聲宏(Sandra Aamodt, Ph.D. & Sam Wang Ph.D.)
譯 者:楊玉齡
※原文版2008年‧中文版於2008年3月授權天下文化※

…………………………………………………………………………
我一向認為,頭腦是我全身最重要的器官。
但是後來我想了一想,且慢,這是誰告訴我的呀?
…………………………………………………………………………

有些情況是,當自己能看透問題的根源,惱人迷思的釐清速度將會加快,但相對的,它不會讓你有「這議題已經乏味」的認知,反而撞擊出更妙的感覺來,《大腦開竅手冊》就有這種功效在!


這書其實破除不少迷思,而且有些還頗為噴飯,比如說佛洛伊德認為夢境是在表達潛意識的欲望(噗~此人的地位還真的每下愈況),事實上,研究睡眠的神經學家發現,夢境有可能是種管道,是個為了把記憶換存到另一個更永久部位的機制;目前已知,每一根神經元(電脈衝/點火)代表著一個傳遞訊息,整套「點火」順序的建立則是一項特定動作的完成指令,而大鼠與鳥類的研究證實,當動物身處於睡眠狀態,夢境中重新演練的點火順序模式都與日常生活中的經歷有關,但因大腦隨機選取、與「詮釋者(本人)」編造反映的關係,造成了怪夢連連,才會出現通俗的心理分析說法。

還有如「大腦沒有完全開發」也是沒有根據的錯誤觀念,此項迷思只是讓腦力提昇課程的學習機構樂得撿便宜罷了,事實上,目前利用顯現腦部活動狀態的功能造影術便可得知,即使是很單純的任務,也足以讓整顆腦袋活動起來。而這項迷思能夠流傳久遠,在於它說出了我們一心巴望聽到的好話--如果我們能夠再多利用一點那剩餘的90%腦力,那麼成就將不知會有多高!

一般人認知的「記憶」隨時都能調閱也是較為罕見的情況,「記憶」這東西只會以某種類似速記的方式儲存下來,其間無趣的細節部份給認為不重要的大腦做了清除動作,更糟的是,求取生存空間的大腦會習慣走某些捷徑、預設某些立場、根據某些經驗法則,自動補填虛假記憶,以編造出更連貫的故事,這種情況有時會釀成悲劇。另一方面來說,除非事先接獲提示,知道應該要用邏輯來解決,否則大多數時候,腦袋憑直覺所給出的答案都能應付得過去,即使那是錯誤答案,而其實腦袋得幫我們規避更危急的情況,就因為邏輯思考是很費力的事,記憶這件事有時反而會變得不太可靠。

其中有一章節所提出的是我覺得每個人都很有必要得知的論點--「追求快樂有方法」,對於大好或大壞的事件,人們在短暫強烈反應過後,都會回復到個人的恆定點上,這些恆定點通常是處於稍稍正面的狀態,這樣的一個過程稱為「適應現象」,以往認為為了增加快樂所做的努力最後都將徒勞無功,但事實證明,你若能訓練報償神經元更加活化,並且消除日常生活中的惱人瑣事,比起偶發的大型正面事件,頻繁的小型正面事件反而具有更大的累進能量,例如食物、飲水、睡眠、性行為與正面的社會人際互動等等。

《大腦開竅手冊》共分為六部與三十一個章節,並針對章節週邊的相關新聞與研究報告,而有「你知道嗎?」、「沒這回事」、「實用訣竅」三種衍生趣味知識題,我自己是覺得比想像中更容易閱讀也有趣,但不知怎麼回事,有半數閱讀時間都是哈欠連連(大汗),為什麼會這樣,也只能問問我那個不會正面回答問題的大腦了!XD


【測驗時間】欲知答案,請整段反白
一、你腦袋中最後一個神經細胞在什麼時候出生?
(a) 在你誕生之前
(b) 6歲時
(c) 18~23歲之間
(d) 老年時

二、男人和女人與生俱來就有的差異是?
(a) 空間推理能力
(b) 導航策略
(c) 為他人把馬桶蓋放下
(d) ab皆是
(e) bc皆是

三、你的腦袋使用到的部份比例有多高?
(a) 10%
(b) 睡覺時5%,清醒時20%
(c) 100%
(d) 依個人的智力而定

四、愛因斯坦的腦袋與一般人相比,有什麼差別?
(a) 真的比較大
(b) 並沒比較大
(c) 表面皺褶多
(d) 多出一個部份

五、以下那個策略最能夠克服時差?
(a) 抵達目的地後的那個晚上,服用退黑激素
(b) 幾天內避免日照
(c) 到達目的地後多曬太陽
(d) 開著燈睡覺

六、以下那個活動可能改善學業成績?
(a) 睡覺時聽古典音樂
(b) 念書時聽古典音樂
(c) 從小學習某種樂器
(d) 念書時,每一段時間就停下打打電動
(e) cd皆是

七、在撞到頭之後最不可能出現以下那種狀況?
(a) 失去意識
(b) 失去記憶
(c) 原本失憶的人會回復記憶
(d) 性格發生改變

八、對你的頭腦來說,以下那件工作最複雜而困難?
(a) 做長程決策
(b) 看一張照片
(c) 下棋
(d) 睡覺

九、你的腦袋所耗掉的能量與下列那一項東西相當?
(a) 一盞冰箱的燈泡
(b) 一台筆記型電腦
(c) 一輛正在發動引擎的汽車
(d) 一輛正在高速公路上奔馳的汽車

十、你的朋友想掻你肚皮癢癢,你要如何減輕搔癢的感覺?
(a) 把你的手放在他的手上,跟著一起移動
(b) 咬自己的指關節
(c) 反過來搔他癢癢
(d) 喝一杯水

十一、考試前那項活動可能有助於提高成績?
(a) 喝一杯酒
(b) 不斷提醒自己,這場考試很重要、不能考砸
(c) 吃一塊糖
(d) 非常堅定的告訴自己,你對這種考試很在行

十二、你在一個很吵的房間裡和朋友講手機,怎麼做才可能對話更清楚?
(a) 講大聲一點
(b) 遮住一隻耳朵,用另一隻耳朵聽電話
(c) 在你講話時遮住你的耳朵
(d) 在你聽話時遮住手機發話筒

十三、以下那一種方法有助減輕焦慮?
(a) 抗憂鬱藥物
(b) 運動
(c) 行為治療
(d) 以上皆是

十四、以下那個項目是失明者比明眼人更擅長的?
(a) 了解字彙
(b) 聽聲音
(c) 記憶故事
(d) 訓練狗

十五、以下那句話是你媽媽說得對?
(a) 把音樂轉小聲一點!
(b) 出去玩一玩!
(c) 多練一下樂器!
(d) 以上皆是

十六、我們記憶從人生那個階段開始變差?
(a) 20幾歲
(b) 30幾歲
(c) 40幾歲
(d) 50幾歲
(e) 60幾歲

十七、那一項活動會殺死神經細胞?
(a) 一個晚上喝三瓶啤酒
(b) 抽大麻
(c) 吃搖腳丸
(d) 以上皆是
(e) 以上皆非

十八、以下那一項不太可能改善老年時的頭腦功能?
(a) 多吃含有Omega-3脂肪酸的魚
(b) 養成運動習慣
(c) 每天喝一兩杯紅酒
(d) 每天喝一整瓶紅酒

十九、以下那一部電影所描述的腦神經損傷最不真實?
(a) 記憶拼圖
(b) 我的失憶女友
(c) 海底總動員
(d) 美麗境界

二十、哺乳類動物中,一夫一妻制的動物種類比例有多高?
(a) 5%
(b) 25%
(c) 50%
(d) 90%


喔耶,照例再來給它截錄文章啦!(扳扳手指、活動筋骨中)
二、給腦袋一記重擊!
好萊塢的「神經脫線」故事


想知道當你的腦袋重重挨了一記時,會出什麼毛病?拜託,千萬不要去看電影找答案! 電影裡的人物總是不斷惹上神經方面的麻煩,一會兒是失去記憶,一會兒是突然改變個性,再不然就是得了精神分裂或是帕金森氏症;至於反社會人格以及其它林林總總的精神異神,就更不用說了。

在好萊塢,大腦發狂的機會遠高於現實世界,有時我們簡直分不出那些情節究竟是科學還是科幻。電影中對精神疾病的描述,從大致正確到完全錯誤都有;最糟糕的是,那些完全誤解大腦如何運作的說法,很容易就助長了謬誤觀念的盛行。


到目前為止,電影中最常出現的精神疾病莫過於失憶症。喪失記憶這個主題,在電影世界多到可以自成一格,就像「男生愛上女生,男生失去女生,男生贏回女生」這種情節般的老套。只不過,故事主人翁失去的不是愛意,而是其他東西,例如忘了自己是一個訓練有素的殺手,就像電影「神鬼認證」以及「魔鬼總動員」。


神經心理學家巴森戴爾曾經主持一項研究調查,結果發現電影裡的失憶症,可以一路回溯到默片時代。她把這些個案分門別類整理出來,其中大部份雖然犯了科學上的錯誤,但娛樂性十足。
電影中的戲劇化主題通常是這樣的:主角因為腦袋受傷導致記憶喪失,因而展開了新生活;接下來,咱們的男主角或是女主角會碰上一連串冒險事件以及災難。雖然他們失去了記憶,但似乎依舊可以生活得滿正常的,而且也能再形成新記憶。

電影裡常見的另一類失憶,來自於心理創傷。這些心理創傷五花八門,從殺了人、到結錯婚,應有盡有,可以大大滿足情節發展所需要的戲劇化鋪陳。尤其到了最後,再來個急轉彎--劇中人突然恢復記憶,原因可能是第二次敲到頭,或者是經歷了一場技術高超的神經外科手術、催眠,也有可能是因為看到了一件從前心愛的重要物品。好啦,電影演完了,謝謝收看。
再來看看電視節目吧,肥皂劇和情境喜劇裡充滿了失憶症的案例,情節愈誇張的,收視率愈高。1960年代,美國的著名連續劇「夢幻島」因為娛樂性高(而不是正確性高),所以備受觀眾喜愛,它光是在三季節目中,就出現了足足三椿失憶症個案。

還有一個惱人的例子是電影「我的失憶女友」,這部電影所描述的那種失憶症,是不管哪一種已知的神經疾病,都不可能出現的。
電影中,女星茱兒·芭莉摩飾演的角色每天都會形成新記憶,但隔夜又把它們忘光光,重新來過一次。也因為這種毛病,讓她能夠受得了和亞當·山德勒一再約會。這種類型的神經毛病:在某特定的時間長度內,一再儲存並喪失記憶的「特殊病例」,恐怕只有那種向別的劇本作家「借腦袋」的編劇,才能想得出來。 事實上,因為撞到頭而喪失記憶的故事,早在電影問世前,就在文學作品中出現過了。

例如,創作手大水山系列小說的柏洛茲,就特別鍾愛這個點子,常常用在他那些粗製濫造的作品裡。在柏洛茲所寫的一部文學水準比較高的作品《泰山得寶》中他把其它形式的神經創傷造失憶的可能性,全都切得一乾二淨:


「他睜開眼睛看到房裡一片漆黑。他摸了摸頭,發現手上沾了黏答答的血塊。他嗅了嗅手指,好像一頭野獸在聞受傷爪子上的生命之血⋯⋯在他這座深埋的墳墓裡,聽不到一點聲音他蹣跚的站起身,在一排排的鑄錠之間,摸索他的出路。他到底是誰?這是什麼地方?他的頭很痛,但除此之外,並不覺得挨到的那一記重擊還有傷到別的地方。他不記得那場意外,更想不起意外是怎麼發生的。」
柏洛茲利用的是當時就存在已久的想法,那就是腦部受傷會導致失憶症。

1901年,帕克出版了一本小說,主角是愛喝酒的勢利眼律師史帝爾,他有個嘮叨不休的老婆,和遊手好閒的小偷連襟。史帝爾因為在巴吧台遭人打傷而患了失憶症。由於喪失記憶,使得他能夠逃避諸多現實問題,重新做人。史帝爾找到了新的愛情、過得很快活,直到昔日的記憶(以及昔日的責任)重新找上他。


好萊塢愛死這個情節了,所以分別在1915年、1920年以及1931年,將史帝爾的故事拍成電影。

在1901年之前,似乎還找不到幾個這類型的想法。充滿想像力的小說家究意是從什麼時候,才開始寫這種撞到頭會失憶的小說呢?我們先撇開這個問題不談;這樣的想法其實象徵了一大進步:承認大腦是思想的所在地。


想想看,這進步了多少:16、17世紀的莎士比亞是把心理變化歸因於魔術!例如《仲夏夜之夢」裡的泰坦妮亞,不就是因為惡作劇的巴克對她使了愛情靈藥,才會愛上長著驢頭的波頓?
我們這樣取笑五花八門的失憶劇情,或許也不盡公平。畢竟有許多源於精神異常的症狀,比起因為生理傷害或疾病而造成的神經系統失調,還來得變化多端。舉例來說,精神症患可能會表現出非常特殊的選擇性失憶症;此外,暫時性的喪失記憶也已知是自發的,可能起因於輕微的腦中風。

好萊塢老是告訴我們,喪失記憶始於腦袋受傷或是心理創傷。就這方面來說,是活該讓科學嚴格批判的。但是那些荒謬的情節倒也提供了一個窗口,讓我們一窺大眾心目中的腦袋運作方式。


許多電影中的錯誤認知,說穿了其實就是「腦袋就像老舊的電視機」。想想看最常在劇中出現的模式:某人的頭部受到重擊而失去記憶,又因為再度受到重擊而恢復記憶。這種屢見不鮮的劇情,其實指出了一個大家都心照不宣的、關於腦袋如何運作的迷思。


再給腦袋一次重擊這個點子,很可能來自於我們日常生活使用電器的經驗,尤其是老舊電器。大家都知道,拍打一台老電視,如果拍得對,有時候可以讓它起死回生。這些老電器通常是因為某些電路接觸點鬆了或髒了,才有可能一旦敲對了地方,就恢復了功能。


這件迷思的根本問題在於:「故障」的腦袋並沒有像老電視一樣的接觸點鬆脫現象,因為實際上,神經元(也就是神經細胞)之間的突觸,把神經元彼此連結得萬分緊密,除非是腦袋全毀,否則單靠撞擊,神經「脫線」這種事是不太可能發生的。


再說,既然由腦部受傷所引起的失憶,最有可能是因為液體堆積,壓迫腦部所造成的,那麼再次受傷把腦袋治好的可能性,應該很低吧。
此外,許多搞電影的人似乎都認定,神經科學家已經把人腦摸得一清二楚了,只要透過神經外科手術,就可以修復喪失的記憶。沒錯,神經外科手術可以降低立即喪命的危險,像是去除壓迫腦袋的腫瘤,或是堆積在腦部的液體;但是神經外科手術可不是萬能的靈丹妙藥。

這讓我們聯想到一幕比較寫實、但很令人反胃的腦部受傷情景,出現在電影「沉默的羔羊」的續集「人魔」中。這部電影描述了「漸進侵襲」⋯⋯算了,我們還是直說吧!就是把人腦一點一點的切下來烹煮,所造成的漸進失能。姑且不論在不殺死人的情況下,要執行這種腦部手術有多困難,在那一幕,起碼我們看到了腦部逐步受損時,所出現的不同階段的失能狀況。

當然,在娛樂界滿坑滿谷有關人腦的誤導及愚蠢描述之外,也有一些科學性很正確的異數。只不過,正確的科學知識不代表能滿足戲劇性。如果可以維持肉容正確,同時吸引具有份量的佳評,那麼贏得票房佳績,其實也不無可能。例如電影「記憶拼圖」、「我知道你是誰」、「海底總動員」以及「美麗境界」中所描述的幾種腦部疾病,不但很正確,而且富有同情心。


2002年上映的「記憶拼圖」,很正確的描述了主角藍納遭遇到的困擾。藍納罹患嚴重的順向失憶症,他因為頭部受傷而無法形成新的記憶;此外,保住立即記憶裡的資訊,對他來說也很困難,只要稍一分神,就會忘記剛才的思緒。這部電影很聰明的利用倒敍的方式,將這種病症對人的影響介紹給觀眾,片子從一名角色死亡開場,劇終一幕則揭露了所有後續事件的意義。

困擾藍納的那些症狀,與腦袋裡的海馬及其相連結構受損的人所經歷的症狀,非常接近。大腦裡並不是藏了一隻海馬,海馬其實是大腦的邊緣系統的一部份,與記憶有關,之所以會有這個名字,是因為它的形狀和海馬很類似。人腦裡的海馬,體積與大小差不多就像胖男人彎起來的小指頭一樣;我們的左右兩個半腦各有一個海馬。


海馬及其相連部位,例如大腦皮質的顳葉,都是短期儲存新事物與新經驗所不可或缺的。此外,這些部位對於長期記憶的儲存,似乎也重要;如果有人的大腦顳葉或海馬因故受損,通常都無法記得頭腦受損前數週或數月的事情。
難能可貴的是,「記憶拼圖」這部電影、甚至連導致藍納失憶症的那種意外,都描述得非常精準--他頭上受傷的部位,就是大腦皮質的顳葉所在;而意外所造成的失能也描述得十分正確。唯一可能不太正確的地方,是他知道自己的毛病而且還能夠形容出來,這一點和許多這部位大腦受損的患者不相同。

有一名代號HM的病患(他是醫學史上最知名的海及顳葉受損病患←有一本相關的書籍就是在談他,書名……忘了囧rz),可就不像藍納這麼幸運了(又或者,他這樣才叫做幸運),在接受一場為了預防癲癇發作的實驗性腦部手術後,HM永遠活當下,逢人就問候,好像第一次見面似的,即使他已經和對方說過無數次話。


2000年上映的西班牙驚悚片「我知道你是誰」,主角是馬利歐,他因為何薩科夫症候群而喪失記憶,這種病與嚴重的酒精中毒有關。馬利歐無法記得1977年以前發生在自己身上的事情,而且也很難成新的記憶,因此而常常感到困惑。

就馬利歐的案例來說,他的記憶缺陷是因為視丘等部位受損,這種損傷是缺乏維生素B1引起的;長期酗酒而導致營養失調的人身上,常出現這種症狀。


關於電影中的失憶症,我們要舉的最後一個例子是動畫片「海底總動員」。這部影片中的症患是一條藍色倒吊魚,名叫多莉。多莉是一隻很友善的小魚,只是她有個和藍納一樣的毛病--很難形成新的記憶,而且只要一分心,就會忘記剛剛的思緒走到那了。


在「海底總動員」中,描述得最真實的地方在於:多莉在求生過程中的那種迷失的感覺,以及她有時會非常惹人厭,連親朋好友都受不了她。


或許我們可以歸納出一點:在有關失憶症的正確描繪中,往往會用同情的角度去呈現患者;而在不正確的描述中,病患則通常都給當成了滑稽、荒謬的人物。重點是,如果能正確的呈現,那些患者的處境總是能令人動容,而且如果處理得好,甚至還能讓觀眾感同身深。
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更加溫柔地對待自己──溫柔在我心《漫畫》


漫畫名:溫柔在我心(ヤサシイワタシ)
漫畫家:樋口愛砂(ひぐちアサ)
集 數:兩集完
譯 者:
※原文版2001~2002年·講談社於2003年9~10月授權長鴻中文化※


回頭找來ひぐちアサ的舊作《溫柔在我心》,閱讀過程中才漸漸領會到《王牌投手》比較難以察覺但一直都在的灰色情緒。


之所以會想死,是因為感到不安;
之所以感到不安,是因為心中有所求。
當心中慾望越來越大時,
就會害怕的裹足不前,
但即使向前走,也帶不走那麼多的慾望。
死亡並不能解決問題,
尋求自我內心深處的認同才是活下去的動力。
妳的確曾經存在過,只是現在已經不在了。
雖然已經不在了,卻更加地引人思念,
那份思念,希望能化為祈福,
期望像妳這樣的人,或是在妳周圍的人,
能夠,更加溫柔地對待自己。

這種描寫人生苦悶、進而自戕的非主流作品,在漫畫市場裡向來就不討好,不過個人認為比起主流漫畫而言,如此嚐試性的探索作品其實是瞭解漫畫家個人本質一個最好的管道。ひぐちアサ本身滿有想法,意念表達不差也不會過於勉強而有自怨自憐自戀的情緒,與其說故事主軸在於探討生命存在的核心價值,不如說,ひぐちアサ傳達著,有些事、有些傷,它們的重量是活著的人無法衡量也無能為力,反之,結束生命雖是逝者的選擇權,但他/她不能夠估量到的是轉移到他人身上的負擔會有多麼地沉痛。

《溫柔在我心》描述芹生弘隆在升上大三同時也加入了攝影社,並與活得很用力、行動力十足的社團學姊唐須彌惠相遇,進而開始交往。交往過程不算順利,週遭同伴有善意勸阻的聲音、有譏諷嘲弄的耳語,芹生也隱隱約約地察覺到唐須學姊人格出了些差錯,只是曾被網球拋棄的芹生可以理解唐須學姊找不到出口的苦,而耐心地想要引導唐須學姊走出自我框架,但兩人終究逐漸步入死胡同,在不愉快的氣氛中協議分手……

《溫柔在我心》重點擺在三個人身上,戀人明明就在身旁、心靈卻無法有所交集的芹生與唐須,以及最後才出場的表妹澄緒,為事件與心情劃下一個句點。唐須的情況不難理解,一旦內心狀態拉扯期過長,心靈堡壘的坍塌是遲早的事,接著催毀的便是人的生存意志。這種議題的處理時常會落到無以名狀的空茫下場,反倒是《溫柔在我心》,每個環節都有整合銜接上,台詞的構成也恰如其份,ひぐちアサ果真很會說故事。

呃,怎麼說呢?就算想做的事被剝奪得一乾二淨,即使未來看來如此無望,更可能不儘人意的找不到活下去與結束生命的理由,但如果能承認自己是軟弱的,並理解生命自有它綻放和殞落的過程,能夠參與就是一種福份,進而尋求一個適合自己的定位點,這樣一來,何不多給自己一點時間呢?生命的詮釋、自我的想望,都是需要靠著時間來沈澱的。

這是套頗有「份量」的好作品!只是依內容而言,迴響的能見度並不高吧。
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Wednesday, July 23, 2008

Más historias del Cambio Climático

"El Subidón"

Lo puedes ver y opinar en: http://www.fergco.co/ o pinchando en el logotipo correspondiente de la columna de la derecha.Any source

¿Cómo están de Humedad nuestros suelos?

La Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET) nos muestra en su web, de forma periódica, la cantidad de humedad que contienen los suelos de España. Esta expresada en forma de porcentaje con respecto a la saturación que es el 100%, es decir, cuando el suelo está “tope de agua”.

Como es normal, debido a la falta de precipitaciones y a las altas temperaturas, gran parte del solar ibérico tiene un porcentaje de humedad muy bajo y por tanto presentan un carácter muy seco. Tal es el caso de Orihuela, donde el suelo permanece muy seco, a la espera de las lluvias tardo – estivales, si es que estas llegan...
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Más noticias del Tiempo en el Mundo

"Dolly amenaza con convertirse en huracán y se dirige a Tejas"
.
Lo puedes ver y opinar en: http://www.fergco.co/
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Hai voluto la bicicletta?



Il ciclismo è uno sport dal fascino innegabile. Viverlo a bordo strada è un avvenimento che ancora oggi coinvolge migliaia di persone. Per chi non avesse la possibilità di seguire le tappe in ogni momento, abbiamo creato una vista in "Street View" per il Tour de France, che consente a chiunque di seguire tappa per tappa la competizione.

Per dare un'occhiata alle immagini a livello strada del Tour, potete visitare questa pagina e, dato che il Tour è passato dall'Italia, anche dare un'occhiata alle strade di Cuneo (da piemontese ne sono orgoglioso, ovviamente), che diventa così, in un modo particolare, la prima città italiana a fare bella mostra di sè in questa forma innovativa.

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Tuesday, July 22, 2008

Mobile Tricks with the Google Mobile App

It turns out we're not the only ones excited about the new Google Mobile App for iPhone and iPod Touch. Adam Pash, of the productivity blog Lifehacker, shows off how he uses the Google Mobile App.


Our friends at Blendtec got a new 3G iPhone and loaded it up with the Google Mobile App... and you can guess what happened next.


Keep your submissions coming! Remember, they should have the Mobile Tricks slides at the beginning and end of the clip, so we can feature them on our Mobile Tricks YouTube channel.

Posted by Effie Seiberg, Mobile TricksterAny source

Monday, July 21, 2008

It’s Time to switch to Quality IT stocks:


The global economy has been going through a phase of slowdown. The financial crises have only added to this slowdown. Reigning high crude prices, escalating costs and fears of recession have cast a cloud of uncertainty over the IT spends of clients. Given such a backdrop majority of the brokerage houses are advising investors to shift their portfolio to large cap stocks due to the following reasons:

  • Clients would go in for vendor consolidation. This would benefit large companies (the big companies are among the top three to four vendors for most of their top clients).
  • IT budgets are expected to remain flat as compared to last year, but as expected offshoring to increase, which would benefit the larger players the most.
  • The bigger companies have the scale and the management bandwidth to withstand a period of flattish growth in revenues. Also, they have greater flexibility in managing client’s accounts.
  • Larger companies with a wider base of customers will be relatively less impacted by lack of spending by a particular client unlike mid or small tier companies who are more dependent on single clients.
Thus investors start locking your money into Infy, Wipro, TCS, HCL etc.
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